As FCC Contemplates Repealing Net Neutrality Protections, Indian Telecom Regulator Reaffirms Support for Principles of Non-Discrimination
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Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers (ISPs) should treat all data that travels over their networks fairly, without improper discrimination in favor of particular apps, sites or services. Even as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is pushing a plan to end net neutrality protections in the U.S., India’s telecom regulator has called for strengthening the principle of non-discriminatory access to the Internet.
This week the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) recommended amending all existing ISP licenses in India to explicitly prohibit discriminatory traffic management practices. TRAI’s recommendations on licensing issues are not binding. While TRAI has the power to frame regulations on issues such as pricing, QoS, and interconnection, the Department of Telecom (DoT) has final authority on matters related to granting or modification of licences in India. But if TRAI’s recommendations are accepted by the DoT, ISPs in India will be explicitly prohibited from and will be penalised for blocking, throttling, slowing down, or granting preferential speeds or treatment to any content on their networks. Having rules in place that restrict ISPs and telecom providers’ ability to control access to content via their networks is important for a free and open Internet. Such rules prevent ISPs from degrading the quality of service or blocking access to apps to earn revenue or to limit competition. The FCC’s Open Order 2015 had also banned throttling, blocking and paid prioritization in the provision of broadband Internet access service. The FCC’s new proposal issued last week would eliminate these bright-line rules against blocking, throttling, and pay-to-play in favor of a simplistic transparency requirement.
TRAI also recommends restricting the scope of application of net neutrality rules to internet access services. It suggests creating an exception for specalized services which it defines as “services other than Internet access services that are optimized for specific content, protocols or user equipment, where the optimization is necessary in order to meet specific quality of service requirements.” In other words, any service for which best efforts delivery is not feasible on the Internet or which is provided over a Closed Electronics Communications Network (CECN) may qualify as specialized services. This could include a range of services from remote surgeries to self driving cars. TRAI also adds that DoT should also retain the flexibility to rely on the concept of specalized services in order to carve out exceptions for complying with net neutrality for critical Internet of Things (IoT). Provisioning exceptions for data or time sensitive applications allow ISPs to charge for providing guaranteed levels of service and quality for certain forms of communication. Provisions for specalized services have been provided for in net neutrality regulations in both the US and EU. On the other hand, in Netherlands, specialised services have not been included as regulators felt that the concept was not necessary for the protection of the functioning of managed, non-Internet based services. Provisions establishing conditions for violations of net neutrality have raised concerns around the possibility that network operators may prioritise high quality specialised services when managing their networks. For example, while managing bandwidth network operators may downgrade the ‘standard’ open internet service leading to poorer service for those who cannot afford to pay more.
The recommendations include exceptions for deploying reasonable restrictions for congestion management, for blocking unlawful content pursuant to a court or government order, and for maintaining security and integrity of the network. Discrimination in traffic management is allowed for Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) as they do not change the priority of the data packets. TRAI has also recommended retaining the flexibility in licensing regime to specify further details and change regulations regarding the scope and assessment of reasonable traffic management practices. On transparency TRAI has proposed supplementing its existing disclosure and requirements and recommends framing additional regulations. It also recommends that a multi-stakeholder, not-for-profit body led by industry, with ISPs, telecommunications companies, large and small content providers, representatives from research and academia, civil society organisations and consumer representatives be created for monitoring traffic management in India. Overall the recommendations are good news for both users’ right to a free and open Internet in India and creating a stable regulatory environment for businesses to operate there—and at the same time, they create a stark contrast with the FCC’s regressive approach.
Make ISO from DVD
In this case I had an OS install disk which was required to be on a virtual node with no optical drive, so I needed to transfer an image to the server to create a VM
Find out which device the DVD is:lsblk
Output:NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda 8:0 0 465.8G 0 disk ├─sda1 8:1 0 1G 0 part /boot └─sda2 8:2 0 464.8G 0 part ├─centos-root 253:0 0 50G 0 lvm / ├─centos-swap 253:1 0 11.8G 0 lvm [SWAP] └─centos-home 253:2 0 403G 0 lvm /home sdb 8:16 1 14.5G 0 disk /mnt sr0 11:0 1 4.1G 0 rom /run/media/rick/CCSA_X64FRE_EN-US_DV5
Therefore /dev/sr0 is the location , or disk to be made into an ISO
I prefer simplicity, and sometimes deal with the fallout after the fact, however Ive repeated this countless times with success.dd if=/dev/sr0 of=win10.iso
Where if=Input file and of=output file
I chill out and do something else while the image is being copied/created, and the final output:8555456+0 records in 8555456+0 records out 4380393472 bytes (4.4 GB) copied, 331.937 s, 13.2 MB/s
Recreate postrgresql database template encode to ASCIIUPDATE pg_database SET datistemplate = FALSE WHERE datname = 'template1';
Now we can drop it:DROP DATABASE template1;
Create database from template0, with a new default encoding:CREATE DATABASE template1 WITH TEMPLATE = template0 ENCODING = 'UNICODE'; UPDATE pg_database SET datistemplate = TRUE WHERE datname = 'template1'; \c template1 VACUUM FREEZE;