As FCC Contemplates Repealing Net Neutrality Protections, Indian Telecom Regulator Reaffirms Support for Principles of Non-Discrimination

  • Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers (ISPs) should treat all data that travels over their networks fairly, without improper discrimination in favor of particular apps, sites or services. Even as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is pushing a plan to end net neutrality protections in the U.S., India’s telecom regulator has called for strengthening the principle of non-discriminatory access to the Internet.

    This week the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) recommended amending all existing ISP licenses in India to explicitly prohibit discriminatory traffic management practices. TRAI’s recommendations on licensing issues are not binding. While TRAI has the power to frame regulations on issues such as pricing, QoS, and interconnection, the Department of Telecom (DoT) has final authority on matters related to granting or modification of licences in India. But if TRAI’s recommendations are accepted by the DoT, ISPs in India will be explicitly prohibited from and will be penalised for blocking, throttling, slowing down, or granting preferential speeds or treatment to any content on their networks. Having rules in place that restrict ISPs and telecom providers’ ability to control access to content via their networks is important for a free and open Internet. Such rules prevent ISPs from degrading the quality of service or blocking access to apps to earn revenue or to limit competition. The FCC’s Open Order 2015 had also banned throttling, blocking and paid prioritization in the provision of broadband Internet access service. The FCC’s new proposal issued last week would eliminate these bright-line rules against blocking, throttling, and pay-to-play in favor of a simplistic transparency requirement.

    TRAI also recommends restricting the scope of application of net neutrality rules to internet access services. It suggests creating an exception for specalized services which it defines as “services other than Internet access services that are optimized for specific content, protocols or user equipment, where the optimization is necessary in order to meet specific quality of service requirements.” In other words, any service for which best efforts delivery is not feasible on the Internet or which is provided over a Closed Electronics Communications Network (CECN) may qualify as specialized services. This could include a range of services from remote surgeries to self driving cars. TRAI also adds that DoT should also retain the flexibility to rely on the concept of specalized services in order to carve out exceptions for complying with net neutrality for critical Internet of Things (IoT). Provisioning exceptions for data or time sensitive applications allow ISPs to charge for providing guaranteed levels of service and quality for certain forms of communication. Provisions for specalized services have been provided for in net neutrality regulations in both the US and EU. On the other hand, in Netherlands, specialised services have not been included as regulators felt that the concept was not necessary for the protection of the functioning of managed, non-Internet based services. Provisions establishing conditions for violations of net neutrality have raised concerns around the possibility that network operators may prioritise high quality specialised services when managing their networks. For example, while managing bandwidth network operators may downgrade the ‘standard’ open internet service leading to poorer service for those who cannot afford to pay more.

    The recommendations include exceptions for deploying reasonable restrictions for congestion management, for blocking unlawful content pursuant to a court or government order, and for maintaining security and integrity of the network. Discrimination in traffic management is allowed for Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) as they do not change the priority of the data packets. TRAI has also recommended retaining the flexibility in licensing regime to specify further details and change regulations regarding the scope and assessment of reasonable traffic management practices. On transparency TRAI has proposed supplementing its existing disclosure and requirements and recommends framing additional regulations. It also recommends that a multi-stakeholder, not-for-profit body led by industry, with ISPs, telecommunications companies, large and small content providers, representatives from research and academia, civil society organisations and consumer representatives be created for monitoring traffic management in India. Overall the recommendations are good news for both users’ right to a free and open Internet in India and creating a stable regulatory environment for businesses to operate there—and at the same time, they create a stark contrast with the FCC’s regressive approach.


Tmux Commands

screen and tmux

A comparison of the features (or more-so just a table of notes for accessing some of those features) for GNU screen and BSD-licensed tmux.

The formatting here is simple enough to understand (I would hope). ^ means ctrl+, so ^x is ctrl+x. M- means meta (generally left-alt or escape)+, so M-x is left-alt+x

It should be noted that this is no where near a full feature-set of either group. This - being a cheat-sheet - is just to point out the most very basic features to get you on the road.

Trust the developers and manpage writers more than me. This document is originally from 2009 when tmux was still new - since then both of these programs have had many updates and features added (not all of which have been dutifully noted here).

Action tmux screen
start a new session tmux OR
tmux new OR
tmux new-session
re-attach a detached session tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
re-attach an attached session (detaching it from elsewhere) tmux attach -d OR
tmux attach-session -d
screen -dr
re-attach an attached session (keeping it attached elsewhere) tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
screen -x
detach from currently attached session ^b d OR
^b :detach
^a ^d OR
^a :detach
rename-window to newname ^b , <newname> OR
^b :rename-window <newn>
^a A <newname>
list windows ^b w ^a w
list windows in chooseable menu ^a "
go to window # ^b # ^a #
go to last-active window ^b l ^a ^a
go to next window ^b n ^a n
go to previous window ^b p ^a p
see keybindings ^b ? ^a ?
list sessions ^b s OR
tmux ls OR
tmux list-sessions
screen -ls
toggle visual bell ^a ^g
create another window ^b c ^a c
exit current shell/window ^d ^d
split window/pane horizontally ^b " ^a S
split window/pane vertically ^b % ^a |
switch to other pane ^b o ^a <tab>
kill the current pane ^b x OR (logout/^D)
collapse the current pane/split (but leave processes running) ^a X
cycle location of panes ^b ^o
swap current pane with previous ^b {
swap current pane with next ^b }
show time ^b t
show numeric values of panes ^b q
toggle zoom-state of current pane (maximize/return current pane) ^b z
break the current pane out of its window (to form new window) ^b !
re-arrange current panels within same window (different layouts) ^b [space]
Kill the current window (and all panes within) ^b killw [target-window]
  • ?



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