FSCK disk repair



  •  -p                   Automatic repair (no questions)
     -n                   Make no changes to the filesystem
     -y                   Assume "yes" to all questions
     -c                   Check for bad blocks and add them to the badblock list
     -f                   Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean
     -v                   Be verbose
     -b superblock        Use alternative superblock
     -B blocksize         Force blocksize when looking for superblock
     -j external_journal  Set location of the external journal
     -l bad_blocks_file   Add to badblocks list
     -L bad_blocks_file   Set badblocks list
    


  • FSCK(8) System Administration FSCK(8)

    NAME fsck - check and repair a Linux filesystem

    SYNOPSIS fsck [-lrsAVRTMNP] [-C [fd]] [-t fstype] [filesystem…] [–] [fs-specific-options]

    DESCRIPTION:

    fsck is used to check and optionally repair one or more Linux filesystems. filesys can be a device name (e.g. /dev/hdc1, /dev/sdb2), a mount point (e.g. /, /usr, /home), or an ext2 label or UUID specifier (e.g.UUID=8868abf6-88c5-4a83-98b8-bfc24057f7bd or LABEL=root).

    Normally, the fsck program will try to handle filesystems on different physical disk drives in parallel to reduce the total amount of time needed to check all of them.

    If no filesystems are specified on the command line, and the -A option is not specified, fsck will default to checking filesystems in /etc/fstab serially. This is equivalent to the -As options.

       The exit code returned by fsck is the sum of the following conditions:
    
              0      No errors
              1      Filesystem errors corrected
              2      System should be rebooted
              4      Filesystem errors left uncorrected
              8      Operational error
              16     Usage or syntax error
              32     Checking canceled by user request
              128    Shared-library error
    

    The exit code returned when multiple filesystems are checked is the bit-wise OR of the exit codes for each filesystem that is checked.

    In actuality, fsck is simply a front-end for the various filesystem checkers (fsck.fstype) available under Linux.

    The filesystem-specific checker is searched for in /sbin first, then in /etc/fs and /etc, and finally in the directories listed in the PATH environment variable. Please see the filesystem-specific checker manual pages for further details.

    OPTIONS:

    -l
    

    Lock the whole-disk device by an exclusive flock(2). This option can be used with one device only (this means that -A and -l are mutually exclusive). This option is recommended when more fsck(8) instances are executed in the same time.

    The option is ignored when used for multiple devices or for non-rotating disks.

    fsck does not lock underlying devices when executed to check stacked devices (e.g. MD or DM) – this feature is not implemented yet.

    -r
    

    Report certain statistics for each fsck when it completes. These statistics include the exit status, the maximum run set size (in kilobytes), the elapsed all-clock time and the user and system CPU time used by the fsck run.

    For example:

    /dev/sda1: status 0, rss 92828, real 4.002804, user 2.677592, sys 0.86186
    
    -s
    

    Serialize fsck operations. This is a good idea if you are checking multiple filesystems and the checkers are in an interactive mode. (Note: e2fsck(8) runs in an interactive mode by default.

    To make e2fsck(8) run in a non-interactive mode, you must either specify the -p or -a option, if you wish for errors to be corrected automatically, or the -n option if you do not.)

    -t 
    

    fslist

    Specifies the type(s) of filesystem to be checked. When the -A flag is specified, only filesystems that match fslist are checked. The fslist parameter is a comma-separated list of filesystems and options specifiers.

    All of the filesystems in this comma-separated list may be prefixed by a negation operator ‘no’ or ‘!’, which requests that only those filesystems not listed in fslist will be checked. If none of the filesystems in fslist is prefixed by a negation operator, then only those listed filesystems will be checked.

    Options specifiers may be included in the comma-separated fslist. They must have the format opts=fs-option. If an options specifier is present, then only filesystems which contain fs-option in their mount options field of /etc/fstab will be checked.

    If the options specifier is prefixed by a negation operator, then only those filesystems that do not have fs-option in their mount options field of /etc/fstab will be checked.

    For example, if opts=ro appears in fslist, then only filesystems listed in /etc/fstab with the ro option will be checked.

    For compatibility with Mandrake distributions whose boot scripts depend upon an unauthorized UI change to the fsck program, if a filesystem type of loop is found in fslist, it is treated as if opts=loop were specified as an argument to the -t option.

    Normally, the filesystem type is deduced by searching for filesys in the /etc/fstab file and using the corresponding entry.

    If the type can not be deduced, and there is only a single filesystem given as an argument to the -t option, fsck will use the specified filesystem type. If this type is not available, then the default filesystem type (currently ext2) is used.

    -A
    

    Walk through the /etc/fstab file and try to check all filesystems in one run. This option is typically used from the /etc/rc system initialization file, instead of multiple commands for checking a single filesystem.

    The root filesystem will be checked first unless the -P option is specified (see below). After that, filesystems will be checked in the order specified by the fs_passno (the sixth) field in the /etc/fstab file.

    Filesystems with a fs_passno value of 0 are skipped and are not checked at all. Filesystems with a fs_passno value of greater than zero will be checked in order, with filesystems with the lowest fs_passno number being checked first.

    If there are multiple filesystems with the same pass number, fsck will attempt to check them in parallel, although it will avoid running multiple filesystem checks on the same physical disk.

    fsck does not check stacked devices (RAIDs, dm-crypt, …) in parallel with any other device. See below for FSCK_FORCE_ALL_PARALLEL setting. The /sys filesystem is used to determine dependencies between devices.

    Hence, a very common configuration in /etc/fstab files is to set the root filesystem to have a fs_passno value of 1 and to set all other filesystems to have a fs_passno value of 2. This will allow fsck to automatically run filesystem checkers in parallel if it is advantageous to do so.

    System administrators might choose not to use this configuration if they need to avoid multiple filesystem checks running in parallel for some reason — for example, if the machine in question is short on memory so that excessive paging is a concern.

    fsck normally does not check whether the device actually exists before calling a filesystem specific checker. Therefore non-existing devices may cause the system to enter filesystem repair mode during boot if the filesystem specific checker returns a fatal error.

    The /etc/fstab mount option nofail may be used to have fsck skip non-existing devices.

    fsck also skips non-existing devices that have the special filesystem type auto.

    -C [fd]
    

    Display completion/progress bars for those filesystem checkers (currently only for ext2 and ext3) which support them. fsck will manage the filesystem checkers so that only one of them will display a progress bar at a time.

    GUI front-ends may specify a file descriptor fd, in which case the progress bar information will be sent to that file descriptor.

    -M
    

    Do not check mounted filesystems and return an exit code of 0 for mounted filesystems.

    -N
    

    Don’t execute, just show what would be done.

    -P
    

    When the -A flag is set, check the root filesystem in parallel with the other filesystems.

    This is not the safest thing in the world to do, since if the root filesystem is in doubt things like the e2fsck(8) executable might be corrupted!

    This option is mainly provided for those sysadmins who don’t want to re partition the root filesystem to be small and compact (which is really the right solution).

    -R
    

    When checking all filesystems with the -A flag, skip the root filesystem. (This is useful in case the root filesystem has already been mounted read-write.)

    -T
    

    Don’t show the title on startup.

    -V
    

    Produce verbose output, including all filesystem-specific commands that are executed.


    fs-specific-options

    Options which are not understood by fsck are passed to the filesystem-specific checker. These options must not take arguments, as there is no way for fsck to be able to properly guess which options take arguments and which don’t.

    Options and arguments which follow the – are treated as filesystem-specific options to be passed to the filesystem-specific checker.

    Please note that fsck is not designed to pass arbitrarily complicated options to filesystem-specific checkers.

    If you’re doing something complicated, please just execute the filesystem-specific checker directly. If you pass fsck some horribly complicated options and arguments, and it doesn’t do what you expect, don’t bother reporting it as a bug. You’re almost certainly doing something that you shouldn’t be doing with fsck

    Options to different filesystem-specific fsck’s are not standardized. If in doubt, please consult the man pages of the filesystem-specific checker.


    Although not guaranteed, the following options are supported by most filesystem checkers:

    -a
    

    Automatically repair the filesystem without any questions (use this option with caution). Note that e2fsck(8) supports -a for backward compatibility only.

    This option is mapped to e2fsck’s -p option which is safe to use, unlike the -a option that some filesystem checkers support.


    -n
    

    For some filesystem-specific checkers, the -n option will cause the fs-specific fsck to avoid attempting to repair any problems, but simply report such problems to stdout.

    This is however not true for all filesystem-specific checkers. In particular, fsck.reiserfs(8) will not report any corruption if given this option.fsck.minix(8) does not support the -n option at all.


    -r
    

    Interactively repair the filesystem (ask for confirmations). Note: It is generally a bad idea to use this option if multiple fsck’s are being run in parallel. Also note that this is e2fsck’s default behavior; it supports this option for backward compatibility reasons only.


    -y
    

    For some filesystem-specific checkers, the -y option will cause the fs-specific fsck to always attempt to fix any detected filesystem corruption automatically.

    Sometimes an expert may be able to do better driving the fsck manually. Note that not all filesystem-specific checkers implement this option. In particular fsck.minix(8) and fsck.cramfs(8) do not support the -y option as of this writing.


    FILES /etc/fstab.

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

    The fsck program’s behavior is affected by the following environment variables:

    FSCK_FORCE_ALL_PARALLEL

    If this environment variable is set, fsck will attempt to check all of the specified filesystems in parallel, regardless of whether the filesystems appear to be on the same device. (This is useful for RAID systems or high-end storage systems such as those sold by companies such as IBM or EMC.) Note that the fs_passno value is still used.

    FSCK_MAX_INST

    This environment variable will limit the maximum number of filesystem checkers that can be running at one time. This allows configurations which have a large number of disks to avoid fsck starting too many filesystem checkers at once, which might overload CPU and memory resources available on the system.

    If this value is zero, then an unlimited number of processes can be spawned. This is currently the default, but future versions of fsck may attempt to automatically determine how many filesystem checks can be run based on gathering accounting data from the operating system.

    PATH

    The PATH environment variable is used to find filesystem checkers. A set of system directories are searched first: /sbin, /sbin/fs.d, /sbin/fs, /etc/fs, and /etc. Then the set of directories found in the PATH environment are searched.

    FSTAB_FILE

    This environment variable allows the system administrator to override the standard location of the /etc/fstab file. It is also useful for developers who are testing fsck.

    LIBBLKID_DEBUG=0xffff

    enables debug output.

    LIBMOUNT_DEBUG=0xffff

    enables debug output.

    SEE ALSO

    fstab(5), mkfs(8), fsck.ext2(8) or fsck.ext3(8) or e2fsck(8), cramfsck(8), fsck.minix(8), fsck.msdos(8), fsck.jfs(8), fsck.nfs(8), fsck.vfat(8), fsck.xfs(8), fsck.xiafs(8), reiserfsck(8).

    AUTHOR: Theodore Ts’o tytso@mit.edu

    AVAILABILITY The fsck command is part of the util-linux package and is available from Linux Kernel Archive ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/.


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Tmux Commands

screen and tmux

A comparison of the features (or more-so just a table of notes for accessing some of those features) for GNU screen and BSD-licensed tmux.

The formatting here is simple enough to understand (I would hope). ^ means ctrl+, so ^x is ctrl+x. M- means meta (generally left-alt or escape)+, so M-x is left-alt+x

It should be noted that this is no where near a full feature-set of either group. This - being a cheat-sheet - is just to point out the most very basic features to get you on the road.

Trust the developers and manpage writers more than me. This document is originally from 2009 when tmux was still new - since then both of these programs have had many updates and features added (not all of which have been dutifully noted here).

Action tmux screen
start a new session tmux OR
tmux new OR
tmux new-session
screen
re-attach a detached session tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
screen-r
re-attach an attached session (detaching it from elsewhere) tmux attach -d OR
tmux attach-session -d
screen -dr
re-attach an attached session (keeping it attached elsewhere) tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
screen -x
detach from currently attached session ^b d OR
^b :detach
^a ^d OR
^a :detach
rename-window to newname ^b , <newname> OR
^b :rename-window <newn>
^a A <newname>
list windows ^b w ^a w
list windows in chooseable menu ^a "
go to window # ^b # ^a #
go to last-active window ^b l ^a ^a
go to next window ^b n ^a n
go to previous window ^b p ^a p
see keybindings ^b ? ^a ?
list sessions ^b s OR
tmux ls OR
tmux list-sessions
screen -ls
toggle visual bell ^a ^g
create another window ^b c ^a c
exit current shell/window ^d ^d
split window/pane horizontally ^b " ^a S
split window/pane vertically ^b % ^a |
switch to other pane ^b o ^a <tab>
kill the current pane ^b x OR (logout/^D)
collapse the current pane/split (but leave processes running) ^a X
cycle location of panes ^b ^o
swap current pane with previous ^b {
swap current pane with next ^b }
show time ^b t
show numeric values of panes ^b q
toggle zoom-state of current pane (maximize/return current pane) ^b z
break the current pane out of its window (to form new window) ^b !
re-arrange current panels within same window (different layouts) ^b [space]
Kill the current window (and all panes within) ^b killw [target-window]
  • Again running smartctl after all is said and done:

    smartctl --all /dev/sda

    ddrescue-smartctl-after-rescue.png ddrescue-smartctl-2.png

    Yet an old drive in itself, I run the wheels off of them, and monitor regularly as anyone should.

    read more
  • Clone hard drive with ddrescue

    Testing a hard drive for failure via smartmontools

    Install smartmontools if not already present: (debian)

    apt-get install smartmontools

    Locate specific hard drives currently installed:

    lsblk

    In this case I choose device ‘sda’

    smartctl --all /dev/sda -q errorsonly

    Example of failing hard drive: smart-failure.png

    Preparing a used hard drive for cloning

    Clearing existing partitions from destination hard drive:

    In this case the destination drive is defined as sdc:

    I’ll use fdisk to clear all existing partitions:

    fdisk /dev/sdc Then print partition existing on sdc by typing the letter p

    p

    fdisk.png

    The above image shows some detail on the destination drive, including on FreeBSD partition named /dev/sdc4

    Since there is only one partition on the destination drive, we simply need to type the letter d at the fdisk command prompt:

    d

    fdisk-delete.png

    If there are more existing partitions on the destination drive, we are presented with them, and numbers to go along, we select which partition via numbers what we delete (in this case everything)

    fdisk-multiple-partitions.png

    Once we’ve removed the partitions, we type the letter w to write the changes, (actually delete the partitions)

    I type the letter p once again to make sure no partitions are still on the disk and then the letter w to write the changes:

    fdisk-write.png

    Using ddrescue to clone the hard drive:

    !Insure your drive letters are correct!

    The command I use to simplify the procedure including reading the damaged drive and putting as little pressure on it as we can manage, while getting as much data as we can, are as follows:

    Insure existing, or damaged hard drive first, and destination hard drive second (In other terms input file first and output file second)

    ddrescue -f -n /dev/sda /dev/sdc /root/recovery.log

    From https://linux.die.net/man/1/ddrescue

    -f, --force overwrite output device or partition

    -n, --no-split do not try to split or retry failed blocks

    We set a log file, which ddrescue can read later if for any reason the proceedure fails in the middle. Or also if we do not get as close to a 100% success rate when finished, the log file will set ddrescue to only attempt to get failed blocks on additional runs.

    ddrescue.png

    In this case 100% of the data was recovered, and transferred to the new hard drive:

    ddrescue-complete.png

    I run lsblk once again to check partitions have been transferred: ddrescue-new-partitions.png

    I then restart the machine:

    shutdown -r now

    After a restart, the journal will be recovered as well as other routine scripts run. I remove other old, damaged hard drives during the restart just before the BIOS kicks up.

    Again after a restart I run :

    lsblk

    ddrescue-new-harddrive.png

    Fin!

    Note This local server is a test environment running ProxMox. Everything running as it should after the clone.

    read more
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