Format USB FreeBSD gpart

  • Locate devices:

    camcontrol devlist

    Output; in this case only:

    <ST3500418AS CC35>                 at scbus3 target 0 lun 0 (pass0,ada0)
    <ST500DM002-1BD142 KC45>           at scbus5 target 0 lun 0 (pass1,ada1)
    <AHCI SGPIO Enclosure 1.00 0001>   at scbus9 target 0 lun 0 (ses0,pass2)
    <Generic STORAGE DEVICE 1532>      at scbus10 target 0 lun 0 (da0,pass3)
    <Generic STORAGE DEVICE 1532>      at scbus10 target 0 lun 1 (da1,pass4)

    Where ada0 and ada1 are mechanical drives, da0 is a miniSD card in a USB enclosure da1

    Or to print all partitions:

    gpart show

    Output (after formatting USB device):

    =>       63  976773105  ada0  MBR  (466G)
             63          1        - free -  (512B)
             64  976773096     1  freebsd  [active]  (466G)
      976773160          8        - free -  (4.0K)
    =>        0  976773096  ada0s1  BSD  (466G)
              0    4194304       1  freebsd-zfs  (2.0G)
        4194304    4194304       2  freebsd-swap  (2.0G)
        8388608  968384480       4  freebsd-zfs  (462G)
      976773088          8          - free -  (4.0K)
    =>       63  976773105  ada1  MBR  (466G)
             63          1        - free -  (512B)
             64  976773096     1  freebsd  [active]  (466G)
      976773160          8        - free -  (4.0K)
    =>        0  976773096  ada1s1  BSD  (466G)
              0    4194304       1  freebsd-zfs  (2.0G)
        4194304    4194304       2  freebsd-swap  (2.0G)
        8388608  968384480       4  freebsd-zfs  (462G)
      976773088          8          - free -  (4.0K)
    =>     32  2012128  da0  MBR  (983M)
           32  2012128    1  fat32  (982M)

    List partitions on dev da0:

    gpart show da0

    Delete existing partitions:

    gpart delete -i da0

    Destroy label:

    gpart destroy da0

    Create new mbr spanning entire disk:

    gpart create -s mbr da0

    Create new fat32 partition spanning entire disk:

    gpart add -t fat32 da0

    Initialize fat32 file system:

    newfs_msdos -F32 /dev/da0s1

    Lets break something!

    Don’t do any of this unless you are prepared to break it all, or better yet, you read the man pages and find out what they actually do, very useful tools however.

    I’m just making notes from other notes, various resources on the net.

    gpart destroy -F da0

    Zero out the drive === !!!Don’t do this jazz regularly on any USB!!! The type of memory has a finite read/write number===

    dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/da0 bs=2m count=1

    Format the drive

    newfs_msdos -F32 /dev/da0s1


Tmux Commands

screen and tmux

A comparison of the features (or more-so just a table of notes for accessing some of those features) for GNU screen and BSD-licensed tmux.

The formatting here is simple enough to understand (I would hope). ^ means ctrl+, so ^x is ctrl+x. M- means meta (generally left-alt or escape)+, so M-x is left-alt+x

It should be noted that this is no where near a full feature-set of either group. This - being a cheat-sheet - is just to point out the most very basic features to get you on the road.

Trust the developers and manpage writers more than me. This document is originally from 2009 when tmux was still new - since then both of these programs have had many updates and features added (not all of which have been dutifully noted here).

Action tmux screen
start a new session tmux OR
tmux new OR
tmux new-session
re-attach a detached session tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
re-attach an attached session (detaching it from elsewhere) tmux attach -d OR
tmux attach-session -d
screen -dr
re-attach an attached session (keeping it attached elsewhere) tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
screen -x
detach from currently attached session ^b d OR
^b :detach
^a ^d OR
^a :detach
rename-window to newname ^b , <newname> OR
^b :rename-window <newn>
^a A <newname>
list windows ^b w ^a w
list windows in chooseable menu ^a "
go to window # ^b # ^a #
go to last-active window ^b l ^a ^a
go to next window ^b n ^a n
go to previous window ^b p ^a p
see keybindings ^b ? ^a ?
list sessions ^b s OR
tmux ls OR
tmux list-sessions
screen -ls
toggle visual bell ^a ^g
create another window ^b c ^a c
exit current shell/window ^d ^d
split window/pane horizontally ^b " ^a S
split window/pane vertically ^b % ^a |
switch to other pane ^b o ^a <tab>
kill the current pane ^b x OR (logout/^D)
collapse the current pane/split (but leave processes running) ^a X
cycle location of panes ^b ^o
swap current pane with previous ^b {
swap current pane with next ^b }
show time ^b t
show numeric values of panes ^b q
toggle zoom-state of current pane (maximize/return current pane) ^b z
break the current pane out of its window (to form new window) ^b !
re-arrange current panels within same window (different layouts) ^b [space]
Kill the current window (and all panes within) ^b killw [target-window]
  • Make ISO from DVD

    In this case I had an OS install disk which was required to be on a virtual node with no optical drive, so I needed to transfer an image to the server to create a VM

    Find out which device the DVD is:



    NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda 8:0 0 465.8G 0 disk ├─sda1 8:1 0 1G 0 part /boot └─sda2 8:2 0 464.8G 0 part ├─centos-root 253:0 0 50G 0 lvm / ├─centos-swap 253:1 0 11.8G 0 lvm [SWAP] └─centos-home 253:2 0 403G 0 lvm /home sdb 8:16 1 14.5G 0 disk /mnt sr0 11:0 1 4.1G 0 rom /run/media/rick/CCSA_X64FRE_EN-US_DV5

    Therefore /dev/sr0 is the location , or disk to be made into an ISO

    I prefer simplicity, and sometimes deal with the fallout after the fact, however Ive repeated this countless times with success.

    dd if=/dev/sr0 of=win10.iso

    Where if=Input file and of=output file

    I chill out and do something else while the image is being copied/created, and the final output:

    8555456+0 records in 8555456+0 records out 4380393472 bytes (4.4 GB) copied, 331.937 s, 13.2 MB/s


    read more
  • Recreate postrgresql database template encode to ASCII

    UPDATE pg_database SET datistemplate = FALSE WHERE datname = 'template1';

    Now we can drop it:

    DROP DATABASE template1;

    Create database from template0, with a new default encoding:

    CREATE DATABASE template1 WITH TEMPLATE = template0 ENCODING = 'UNICODE'; UPDATE pg_database SET datistemplate = TRUE WHERE datname = 'template1'; \c template1 VACUUM FREEZE;

    read more