Move files to and from server scp command



  • SCP or (secure copy) allows you to move files even entire directories to, or from local and or remote hosts, using the same authentication and securtiy levels as SSH.

    Copy the file “foobar.txt” from a remote host to the local host

        $ scp username@site.com:foobar.txt /local/directory
    

    Copy the file “foobar.txt” from the local host to a remote host

        $ scp foobar.txt username@remotehost.com:/path/to/directory
    

    Copy the directory “foo” from the local host to a remote host’s directory “bar”

        $ scp -r foo username@remotehost.com:/remote/directory/bar
    

    Copy the file “foobar.txt” from remote host “site1.com” to remote host “site2.com”

        $ scp username@site1.com:/remote/directory/foobar.txt \username@site2.com:/remote/directory/
    

    Copying the files “foo.txt” and “bar.txt” from the local host to your home directory on the remote host

        $ scp foo.txt bar.txt username@site.com:~
    

    Copy the file “foobar.txt” from the local host to a remote host using port 1000 (or whatever ssh port your running on)

        $ scp -P 1000 foobar.txt username@site.com:/remote/directory
    

    Copy multiple files from the remote host to your current directory on the local host

        $ scp username@site.com:/remote/directory/\{a,b,c\} .
    
        $ scp username@site.com:~/\{foo.txt,bar.txt\} .
    

    By default scp uses the Triple-DES cipher to encrypt the data being sent. Using the Blowfish cipher has been shown to increase speed on slower connections. This can be done by using option -c blowfish in the command line.

    $ scp -c blowfish file.txt username@site.com:~
    

    Use the -C option for compression, and a bit of speed. If you have a fast connection you might not notice much of a difference. However it is a bit more CPU intensive due to the algorithms used to generate the encryption.

    Blowfish scp example:

        $ scp -c blowfish -C file.txt username@site.com:~

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Tmux Commands

screen and tmux

A comparison of the features (or more-so just a table of notes for accessing some of those features) for GNU screen and BSD-licensed tmux.

The formatting here is simple enough to understand (I would hope). ^ means ctrl+, so ^x is ctrl+x. M- means meta (generally left-alt or escape)+, so M-x is left-alt+x

It should be noted that this is no where near a full feature-set of either group. This - being a cheat-sheet - is just to point out the most very basic features to get you on the road.

Trust the developers and manpage writers more than me. This document is originally from 2009 when tmux was still new - since then both of these programs have had many updates and features added (not all of which have been dutifully noted here).

Action tmux screen
start a new session tmux OR
tmux new OR
tmux new-session
screen
re-attach a detached session tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
screen-r
re-attach an attached session (detaching it from elsewhere) tmux attach -d OR
tmux attach-session -d
screen -dr
re-attach an attached session (keeping it attached elsewhere) tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
screen -x
detach from currently attached session ^b d OR
^b :detach
^a ^d OR
^a :detach
rename-window to newname ^b , <newname> OR
^b :rename-window <newn>
^a A <newname>
list windows ^b w ^a w
list windows in chooseable menu ^a "
go to window # ^b # ^a #
go to last-active window ^b l ^a ^a
go to next window ^b n ^a n
go to previous window ^b p ^a p
see keybindings ^b ? ^a ?
list sessions ^b s OR
tmux ls OR
tmux list-sessions
screen -ls
toggle visual bell ^a ^g
create another window ^b c ^a c
exit current shell/window ^d ^d
split window/pane horizontally ^b " ^a S
split window/pane vertically ^b % ^a |
switch to other pane ^b o ^a <tab>
kill the current pane ^b x OR (logout/^D)
collapse the current pane/split (but leave processes running) ^a X
cycle location of panes ^b ^o
swap current pane with previous ^b {
swap current pane with next ^b }
show time ^b t
show numeric values of panes ^b q
toggle zoom-state of current pane (maximize/return current pane) ^b z
break the current pane out of its window (to form new window) ^b !
re-arrange current panels within same window (different layouts) ^b [space]
Kill the current window (and all panes within) ^b killw [target-window]
  • Again running smartctl after all is said and done:

    smartctl --all /dev/sda

    ddrescue-smartctl-after-rescue.png ddrescue-smartctl-2.png

    Yet an old drive in itself, I run the wheels off of them, and monitor regularly as anyone should.

    read more
  • Clone hard drive with ddrescue

    Testing a hard drive for failure via smartmontools

    Install smartmontools if not already present: (debian)

    apt-get install smartmontools

    Locate specific hard drives currently installed:

    lsblk

    In this case I choose device ‘sda’

    smartctl --all /dev/sda -q errorsonly

    Example of failing hard drive: smart-failure.png

    Preparing a used hard drive for cloning

    Clearing existing partitions from destination hard drive:

    In this case the destination drive is defined as sdc:

    I’ll use fdisk to clear all existing partitions:

    fdisk /dev/sdc Then print partition existing on sdc by typing the letter p

    p

    fdisk.png

    The above image shows some detail on the destination drive, including on FreeBSD partition named /dev/sdc4

    Since there is only one partition on the destination drive, we simply need to type the letter d at the fdisk command prompt:

    d

    fdisk-delete.png

    If there are more existing partitions on the destination drive, we are presented with them, and numbers to go along, we select which partition via numbers what we delete (in this case everything)

    fdisk-multiple-partitions.png

    Once we’ve removed the partitions, we type the letter w to write the changes, (actually delete the partitions)

    I type the letter p once again to make sure no partitions are still on the disk and then the letter w to write the changes:

    fdisk-write.png

    Using ddrescue to clone the hard drive:

    !Insure your drive letters are correct!

    The command I use to simplify the procedure including reading the damaged drive and putting as little pressure on it as we can manage, while getting as much data as we can, are as follows:

    Insure existing, or damaged hard drive first, and destination hard drive second (In other terms input file first and output file second)

    ddrescue -f -n /dev/sda /dev/sdc /root/recovery.log

    From https://linux.die.net/man/1/ddrescue

    -f, --force overwrite output device or partition

    -n, --no-split do not try to split or retry failed blocks

    We set a log file, which ddrescue can read later if for any reason the proceedure fails in the middle. Or also if we do not get as close to a 100% success rate when finished, the log file will set ddrescue to only attempt to get failed blocks on additional runs.

    ddrescue.png

    In this case 100% of the data was recovered, and transferred to the new hard drive:

    ddrescue-complete.png

    I run lsblk once again to check partitions have been transferred: ddrescue-new-partitions.png

    I then restart the machine:

    shutdown -r now

    After a restart, the journal will be recovered as well as other routine scripts run. I remove other old, damaged hard drives during the restart just before the BIOS kicks up.

    Again after a restart I run :

    lsblk

    ddrescue-new-harddrive.png

    Fin!

    Note This local server is a test environment running ProxMox. Everything running as it should after the clone.

    read more
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