Locating files with the find command

  • Locating files using the find command

    The find command is a powerful utility that allows the user to find files located in the file system via criteria such as the file name, when file was last accessed, when the file status was last changed, the file’s permissions, owner, group, size.

    Find a file “foo.bar” that exists somewhere in the file system

    find / -name foo.bar -print

    On most platforms the -print is optional, however, on some systems nothing will be output without it. Without specifications find searches recursively through all directories.

    Find a file without searching network or mounted file systems

    find / -name foo.bar -print -xdev

    This is useful if you have network drives that you know the file would not be located on. “-mount” does the same thing as “-xdev” for compatibility with other versions of find.

    Find a file without showing “Permission Denied” messages

    find / -name foo.bar -print 2>/dev/null

    When find tries to search a directory or file that you do not have permission to read the message “Permission Denied” will be output to the screen. The 2>/dev/null option sends these messages to /dev/null so that the found files are easily viewed.

    Find a file, who’s name ends with .bar, within the current directory and only search 2 directories deep

    find . -name *.bar -maxdepth 2 -print

    Search directories “./dir1” and “./dir2” for a file "foo.bar

    find ./dir1 ./dir2 -name foo.bar -print

    Search for files that are owned by the user "skippie"

    find /some/directory -user skippie -print

    The files output will belong to the user “skippie”. Similar criteria are -uid to search for a user by their numerical id, -group to search by a group name, and -gid to search by a group id number.

    Find a file that is a certain type. “-type l” searches for symbolic links

    find /any/directory -type l -print

    Several types of files can be searched for: Several types of files can be searched for:

    • b block (buffered) special

    • c character (unbuffered) special

    • d directory

    • p named pipe (FIFO)

    • f regular file

    • l symbolic link

    • s socket

    Search for directories that contain the phrase “foo” but do not end in ".bar"

    find . -name '*foo*' ! -name '*.bar' -type d -print

    The “!” allows you to exclude results that contain the phrases following it.

    find becomes extremely useful when combined with other commands. One such combination would be using find and grep together.

    find ~/documents -type f -name '*.txt' \ -exec grep -s DOGS {} \; -print

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Tmux Commands

screen and tmux

A comparison of the features (or more-so just a table of notes for accessing some of those features) for GNU screen and BSD-licensed tmux.

The formatting here is simple enough to understand (I would hope). ^ means ctrl+, so ^x is ctrl+x. M- means meta (generally left-alt or escape)+, so M-x is left-alt+x

It should be noted that this is no where near a full feature-set of either group. This - being a cheat-sheet - is just to point out the most very basic features to get you on the road.

Trust the developers and manpage writers more than me. This document is originally from 2009 when tmux was still new - since then both of these programs have had many updates and features added (not all of which have been dutifully noted here).

Action tmux screen
start a new session tmux OR
tmux new OR
tmux new-session
re-attach a detached session tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
re-attach an attached session (detaching it from elsewhere) tmux attach -d OR
tmux attach-session -d
screen -dr
re-attach an attached session (keeping it attached elsewhere) tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
screen -x
detach from currently attached session ^b d OR
^b :detach
^a ^d OR
^a :detach
rename-window to newname ^b , <newname> OR
^b :rename-window <newn>
^a A <newname>
list windows ^b w ^a w
list windows in chooseable menu ^a "
go to window # ^b # ^a #
go to last-active window ^b l ^a ^a
go to next window ^b n ^a n
go to previous window ^b p ^a p
see keybindings ^b ? ^a ?
list sessions ^b s OR
tmux ls OR
tmux list-sessions
screen -ls
toggle visual bell ^a ^g
create another window ^b c ^a c
exit current shell/window ^d ^d
split window/pane horizontally ^b " ^a S
split window/pane vertically ^b % ^a |
switch to other pane ^b o ^a <tab>
kill the current pane ^b x OR (logout/^D)
collapse the current pane/split (but leave processes running) ^a X
cycle location of panes ^b ^o
swap current pane with previous ^b {
swap current pane with next ^b }
show time ^b t
show numeric values of panes ^b q
toggle zoom-state of current pane (maximize/return current pane) ^b z
break the current pane out of its window (to form new window) ^b !
re-arrange current panels within same window (different layouts) ^b [space]
Kill the current window (and all panes within) ^b killw [target-window]
  • Mount NFS from Truenas

    mkdir -p /media/rick/pool1 chown -R rick:rick /media/rick/pool1

    Add the automount to: /etc/fstab

    truenas.thecave:/mnt/pool1 /media/rick/pool1 nfs user,auto 0 0

    Retstart Nautilus to see the share in files:

    killall nautilus

    For other shares, just repeat the same process under directory ‘media’ with the name of the share substituted

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  • Again running smartctl after all is said and done:

    smartctl --all /dev/sda

    ddrescue-smartctl-after-rescue.png ddrescue-smartctl-2.png

    Yet an old drive in itself, I run the wheels off of them, and monitor regularly as anyone should.

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