Burn ISO to cd/DVD/BD linux command line

  • There are still those times when {place whatever issue or project here} will require burning optical media, even a CD if you enjoy toying around with older, even ancient hardware.

    That said there are many GUI programs which can accomplish this. However that’s not always viable, or desired. Especially when you care more about the command line and keeping your brain from going sedentary, by constantly clicking a button and having something done for you. /snarky

    In this instance I’ll burn an ISO image of hdat2 to a cd from the command line using wodim on Debian.

    Install wodim:

    sudo apt-get install wodim

    Burn ISO to a cd:

    Find the drive name in which you will use to write the image: You can have a quick look at how to burn an ISO to USB which contains the same basic procedure for locating storage devices locally. Or continue on.

    Locate the device which you intend to use to burn by using the command:


    In this case the output is as follows:

    rick@deb:~$ lsblk
    NAME                        MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE   MOUNTPOINT
    sda                           8:0    0 465.8G  0 disk   
    └─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume0    254:0    0 931.5G  0 dmraid 
      ├─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume01 254:1    0 893.8G  0 dmraid /
      └─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume05 254:2    0  37.7G  0 dmraid 
    sdb                           8:16   0 465.8G  0 disk   
    └─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume0    254:0    0 931.5G  0 dmraid 
      ├─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume01 254:1    0 893.8G  0 dmraid /
      └─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume05 254:2    0  37.7G  0 dmraid 
    sdc                           8:32   0     2T  0 disk 

    This shows two disks (sda & sdb) in raid form, as well as the optical device we will use (SDC)

    Next, Navigate to the directory of the ISO (not required but simplifies the command) many times in the downloads directory.

    Now we are ready to burn the ISO to cd.

    Type the following in command line:

    wodim -v dev=/dev/sr0 -eject -sao hdat2cd_51.iso

    Here is the output after hitting return:

    TOC Type: 1 = CD-ROM
    scsidev: '/dev/sr0'
    devname: '/dev/sr0'
    scsibus: -2 target: -2 lun: -2
    Linux sg driver version: 3.5.27
    Wodim version: 1.1.11
    SCSI buffer size: 64512
    Device type    : Removable CD-ROM
    Version        : 0
    Response Format: 3
    Capabilities   : 
    Vendor_info    : 'ATAPI   '
    Identification : 'iHAS324   A     '
    Revision       : 'BL1A'
    Device seems to be: Generic mmc2 DVD-R/DVD-RW.
    Current: 0x000A (CD-RW)
    Profile: 0x002B (DVD+R/DL) 
    Profile: 0x001B (DVD+R) 
    Profile: 0x001A (DVD+RW) 
    Profile: 0x0016 (DVD-R/DL layer jump recording) 
    Profile: 0x0015 (DVD-R/DL sequential recording) 
    Profile: 0x0014 (DVD-RW sequential recording) 
    Profile: 0x0013 (DVD-RW restricted overwrite) 
    Profile: 0x0012 (DVD-RAM) 
    Profile: 0x0011 (DVD-R sequential recording) 
    Profile: 0x0010 (DVD-ROM) 
    Profile: 0x000A (CD-RW) (current)
    Profile: 0x0009 (CD-R) 
    Profile: 0x0008 (CD-ROM) 
    Profile: 0x0002 (Removable disk) 
    Using generic SCSI-3/mmc   CD-R/CD-RW driver (mmc_cdr).
    Supported modes: TAO PACKET SAO SAO/R96P SAO/R96R RAW/R16 RAW/R96P RAW/R96R
    Drive buf size : 1275648 = 1245 KB
    Beginning DMA speed test. Set CDR_NODMATEST environment variable if device
    communication breaks or freezes immediately after that.
    FIFO size      : 12582912 = 12288 KB
    Track 01: data    13 MB        
    Total size:       15 MB (01:34.97) = 7123 sectors
    Lout start:       16 MB (01:36/73) = 7123 sectors
    Current Secsize: 2048
    ATIP info from disk:
      Indicated writing power: 3
      Reference speed: 6
      Is not unrestricted
      Is erasable
      Disk sub type: High speed Rewritable (CAV) media (1)
      ATIP start of lead in:  -11745 (97:25/30)
      ATIP start of lead out: 359848 (79:59/73)
      1T speed low:  4 1T speed high: 10
      2T speed low:  4 2T speed high:  0 (reserved val  6)
      power mult factor: 1 5
      recommended erase/write power: 5
      A1 values: 24 1A D8
      A2 values: 26 B2 4A
    Disk type:    Phase change
    Manuf. index: 40
    Manufacturer: INFODISC Technology Co., Ltd.
    Blocks total: 359848 Blocks current: 359848 Blocks remaining: 352725
    Forcespeed is OFF.
    Speed set to 1765 KB/s
    Starting to write CD/DVD at speed  10.0 in real SAO mode for single session.
    Last chance to quit, starting real write in    0 seconds. Operation starts.
    Waiting for reader process to fill input buffer ... input buffer ready.
    Performing OPC...
    Sending CUE sheet...
    Writing pregap for track 1 at -150
    Starting new track at sector: 0
    Track 01:   13 of   13 MB written (fifo 100%) [buf 100%]  10.6x.
    Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 14587904/14587904 (7123 sectors).
    Writing  time:   27.528s
    Average write speed   3.9x.
    Min drive buffer fill was 100%
    Fixating time:   17.593s
    BURN-Free was never needed.
    wodim: fifo had 230 puts and 230 gets.
    wodim: fifo was 0 times empty and 30 times full, min fill was 96%.

    As you can see, the -v flag (verbose) allows us to get a bit more data as the process is happening. Of course this particular image was only ~15MB, so the time was very short, larger images will of course take much longer.

    The burner door will open when the process is complete.

    To burn a DVD via command line : We’ll use a script called growisofs:

    sudo apt-get install growisofs

    Follow the same procedure to locate the proper device using the command:


    Move to the directory the ISO is located, and type:

    growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/sr0=hdat2cd_51.iso


Tmux Commands

screen and tmux

A comparison of the features (or more-so just a table of notes for accessing some of those features) for GNU screen and BSD-licensed tmux.

The formatting here is simple enough to understand (I would hope). ^ means ctrl+, so ^x is ctrl+x. M- means meta (generally left-alt or escape)+, so M-x is left-alt+x

It should be noted that this is no where near a full feature-set of either group. This - being a cheat-sheet - is just to point out the most very basic features to get you on the road.

Trust the developers and manpage writers more than me. This document is originally from 2009 when tmux was still new - since then both of these programs have had many updates and features added (not all of which have been dutifully noted here).

Action tmux screen
start a new session tmux OR
tmux new OR
tmux new-session
re-attach a detached session tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
re-attach an attached session (detaching it from elsewhere) tmux attach -d OR
tmux attach-session -d
screen -dr
re-attach an attached session (keeping it attached elsewhere) tmux attach OR
tmux attach-session
screen -x
detach from currently attached session ^b d OR
^b :detach
^a ^d OR
^a :detach
rename-window to newname ^b , <newname> OR
^b :rename-window <newn>
^a A <newname>
list windows ^b w ^a w
list windows in chooseable menu ^a "
go to window # ^b # ^a #
go to last-active window ^b l ^a ^a
go to next window ^b n ^a n
go to previous window ^b p ^a p
see keybindings ^b ? ^a ?
list sessions ^b s OR
tmux ls OR
tmux list-sessions
screen -ls
toggle visual bell ^a ^g
create another window ^b c ^a c
exit current shell/window ^d ^d
split window/pane horizontally ^b " ^a S
split window/pane vertically ^b % ^a |
switch to other pane ^b o ^a <tab>
kill the current pane ^b x OR (logout/^D)
collapse the current pane/split (but leave processes running) ^a X
cycle location of panes ^b ^o
swap current pane with previous ^b {
swap current pane with next ^b }
show time ^b t
show numeric values of panes ^b q
toggle zoom-state of current pane (maximize/return current pane) ^b z
break the current pane out of its window (to form new window) ^b !
re-arrange current panels within same window (different layouts) ^b [space]
Kill the current window (and all panes within) ^b killw [target-window]
  • Again running smartctl after all is said and done:

    smartctl --all /dev/sda

    ddrescue-smartctl-after-rescue.png ddrescue-smartctl-2.png

    Yet an old drive in itself, I run the wheels off of them, and monitor regularly as anyone should.

    read more
  • Clone hard drive with ddrescue

    Testing a hard drive for failure via smartmontools

    Install smartmontools if not already present: (debian)

    apt-get install smartmontools

    Locate specific hard drives currently installed:


    In this case I choose device ‘sda’

    smartctl --all /dev/sda -q errorsonly

    Example of failing hard drive: smart-failure.png

    Preparing a used hard drive for cloning

    Clearing existing partitions from destination hard drive:

    In this case the destination drive is defined as sdc:

    I’ll use fdisk to clear all existing partitions:

    fdisk /dev/sdc Then print partition existing on sdc by typing the letter p



    The above image shows some detail on the destination drive, including on FreeBSD partition named /dev/sdc4

    Since there is only one partition on the destination drive, we simply need to type the letter d at the fdisk command prompt:



    If there are more existing partitions on the destination drive, we are presented with them, and numbers to go along, we select which partition via numbers what we delete (in this case everything)


    Once we’ve removed the partitions, we type the letter w to write the changes, (actually delete the partitions)

    I type the letter p once again to make sure no partitions are still on the disk and then the letter w to write the changes:


    Using ddrescue to clone the hard drive:

    !Insure your drive letters are correct!

    The command I use to simplify the procedure including reading the damaged drive and putting as little pressure on it as we can manage, while getting as much data as we can, are as follows:

    Insure existing, or damaged hard drive first, and destination hard drive second (In other terms input file first and output file second)

    ddrescue -f -n /dev/sda /dev/sdc /root/recovery.log

    From https://linux.die.net/man/1/ddrescue

    -f, --force overwrite output device or partition

    -n, --no-split do not try to split or retry failed blocks

    We set a log file, which ddrescue can read later if for any reason the proceedure fails in the middle. Or also if we do not get as close to a 100% success rate when finished, the log file will set ddrescue to only attempt to get failed blocks on additional runs.


    In this case 100% of the data was recovered, and transferred to the new hard drive:


    I run lsblk once again to check partitions have been transferred: ddrescue-new-partitions.png

    I then restart the machine:

    shutdown -r now

    After a restart, the journal will be recovered as well as other routine scripts run. I remove other old, damaged hard drives during the restart just before the BIOS kicks up.

    Again after a restart I run :




    Note This local server is a test environment running ProxMox. Everything running as it should after the clone.

    read more